Friday, March 27, 2015

Goodbye Night Vision Gear, Eyedrops is the New News

This breakthrough was done with limited budget by the non-professional crowd.  With the unlimited knowledge of the internet, we will be seeing more of these types of advances.

Interestingly enough we are entering another age of DIY scientific advancement on par with the great leaps of science that occurred in the late 1800's early 1900's before government exerted a monopoly control via the university system.

I have included links to where one can purchase this chemical at the bottom of this post.  DMSO is prescription only.

Testing photos here (link)

A Review on Night Enhancement Eyedrops Using Chlorin e6 9   Recently updated !

A Review on Night Enhancement Eyedrops Using Chlorin e6

Licina, G; Tibbetts, J


This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

To view a copy of this license, visit


The authors of this paper are writing this review for research and informative purposes only. Increased light amplification may have adverse effects on the cellular structure of the eye if improperly used and the some of the materials used in this mixture should not be used on humans or animals.


Chlorin e6 (Ce6) has been used for many years as a therapy agent in cancer treatment1,2.

However, in recent years other uses for ce6 have been found, the most notable in this case being its application into the conjuctival sac of the eye as a means of treating night blindness and improving the dim light vision of those with visual disturbances3. This preliminary study attempts to test the ability of a mixture containing Ce6 to improve the dim light vision of healthy adults.

In 2012 a patent was filed based in some part on the work of Washington et al4. The patent claims that a mixture can be made which, when applied to the eye, will absorb to the retina and act to increase vision in low light. The mixture put forth in the patent is a simple combination of Ce6 and insulin in saline. It is mentioned in the same, that dimethlysulfoxide (DMSO) can be used in place of the insulin. We propose a combination of the two could lead to the most noted effects. For testing purposes, the mixture from the patent (Ce6, Saline, Insulin) was used with the addition of DMSO for increased permeability.

Material Background

Ce6 is a tetrapyrolle and a chlorophyll analog. As mentioned, it has historically been used as a photosensitizer in laser assisted cancer remediation. The light amplification properties of the Ce6 are used to use the energy from a low power light source to destroy cancerous cells with literal laser precision. The reaction creates oxygen species which induce apoptosis in tumor cells. This lead to the concerns about the mixture, as it would be possible that bright or even ambient daylight’s amplified effect in the eye may harm the cells, potentially causing permanent damage.

The function of the insulin is not expressly mentioned in the patent or the journals papers. It has been shown that insulin downregulates the ABCG2 mediated transport pathway5. With ABCG2 downregulated, greater absorption is shown for photosensitizers like Ce66. In the case of this solution, the insulin is used to allow absorption of the Ce6 into the chamber of the eye.

DMSO is used in cell preservation and in medication application. It’s primary ability, in this scope, is to cause increased permeability of the cellular membrane, allowing for free passage for any chemicals that come into contact with the dosed area. While anecdotal reports of healing abilities or “tasting” lemon juice through ones skin abound on the internet, the high risk of cellular toxicity from outside contaminants being absorbed through the skin make this chemical something that should only be handled with caution.


The Ce6 (Frontier Scientific, CAS: 19660-77-6 ), was found to be a fine black powder which clung to all surfaces. To make manipulating the chemical easier, a large batch of the total solution was made and then aliqouted into separate containers for storage.

200mg of Ce6 was mixed with 400 units (4ml) of insulin (70/30 Lantus). To this was added 5.38ml of sterile saline solution (0.9% sodium chloride). The mixture was sonicated briefly (30 seconds) to allow for proper dispersal of the powder into saturated solution and then 625μl of DMSO (Amresco) was added. The solution was sealed with parafilm and sonicated for 150 seconds. The resulting liquid was thin and black in color. Solution was kept in glass aliqouts wrapped in foil at 20°C.

For the application, the subject rested supine and his eyes were flushed with saline to remove any micro-debris or contaminants that might be present. Eyes were pinned open with a small speculum to remove the potential for blinking, which may force excess liquid out before it had a chance to absorb. Ce6 solution was added to the conjunctival sac via micropippette at 3 doses of 50μl into each eye. After each application, pressure was applied to the canthus to stop liquid from moving from the eye to the nasal region. Each dose was allowed to absorb between reloading the pippette, with the black color disappearing after only a few seconds.

After application was complete, the speculum was removed and black sclera lenses were placed into each eye to reduce the potential light entering the eye. Black sunglasses were then worn during all but testing, to ensure increased low light conditions and reduce the potential for bright light exposure.


The Ce6 solution has been shown to work in as little as one hour, with the effects lasting for “many hours” afterwards3. After 2 hours of adjustment, the subject and 4 controls were taken to a darkened area and subjected to testing. Three forms of subjective testing were performed. These consisted of symbol recognition by distance, symbol recognition on varying background colors at a static distance, and the ability to identify moving subjects in a varied background at varied distances. Symbol recognition consisted of placing a collection of objects with markings on them (numbers, letters, shapes). Subjects were then asked to identify the markings, each viewing the objects from the same location at a distance of 10 meters. The markings were not made prior to the moment of testing.

For subject recognition, individuals went moved in a small grove of trees. They were allowed to chose their own location independently. Distances ranged from 25 to 50 meters from observation point and trees and brush were used for “blending”. Locations were chosen without being observed by the test subjects. The Ce6 subject and controls were handed a laser pointer and asked to identify the location of the people in the grove. After testing the Ce6 subject replaced the sunglasses which were not removed until sleep. Eyesight in the morning seemed to have returned to normal and as of 20 days, there have been no noticeable effects.

The Ce6 subject consistently recognized symbols that did not seem to be visible to the controls. The Ce6 subject identified the distant figures 100% of the time, with the controls showing a 33% identification rate.


It is noted that more testing will need to be done on this particular project. Current testing done was subjective in nature. A Ganzfeld stimulator and electroretinigraph will be used to measure the actual amount of electrical stimulation increase from the eye, giving a hard quantifiable number to the degree of amplification. It is also possible to test which ranges of vision are being amplified as well. However, given the current results and the previous body of work on the technique, it seems fair to say that this technique is successful in it claims for low light amplification in the human eye. These findings are subjective experiences. Subject experienced no adverse effects following administration. Preliminary testing seems to indicate this increase in dim light vision to be occurring. Further testing is need to confirm and measure the degree of improvement in health subjects.

Being able to access the information put forth in journals and patents is extremely important for future scientists to be able to work with and build from the knowledge that we have currently. Moreover, it is extremely important for clear methods to be available for any researcher who desires to review a scientific paper. The last year (2014) has shown more scientific journal articles rescinded than any year previously. Citizen scientists and “DIY biologists” are under no pressure to reach or hold a position of tenure and often do not have the need to produce for monetary reasons. It is possible that this will allow for less bias in publishing and a more open release of work due to the lack of external motivators. By making information accessible, one can pre-empt “scooping” and instead focus on collaboration. During this research, we feel we were fortunate to be operating from just such a position. The disadvantage however was a decreased availability of access to many of the tools that would allow us to verify our findings quickly and easily. Ce6 administered as described in this paper in the dosages described have so far been without any adverse effects and show great potential to enhance the vision of healthy adults in dim light situations. Further studies should be performed in order to measure the effects of this ce6 solution objectively.


1 – Bachor R, Scholz M, Shea C, Hasan T. Mechanism of photosensitization by microsphere-bound chlorin e6 in human bladder carcinoma cells. Cancer Research, 1991, 51:4410-4414.

2 – Akhlynina T, Rosenkranz A, Jans D, Sobolev A. Insulin-mediated Intracellular Targeting Enhances the Photodynamic Activity of Chlorin e6. Cancer Research, 1995, 55:1014-1019

3 – Shantha, T, inventor, assignee. Methods to Enhance Night Vision and Treatment of Night Blindness. 21 June 2012. Patent 20120157377.

4 – Washington I, Zhou J, Jockush S, Turro N, Nakanishi K, Sparrow J. Chlorophyll Derivatives as a Visual Pigment for Super Vision in the Red. Photochem. Photobiol., 2007, 6:775-779, DOI: 10.1039/b618104j

5 – Liu X, Jing X, Jin S, Li Y, Liu L, Yu Y, Liu X, Xie L. Insulin suppresses the expression and function of breast cancer resistance protein in primary cultures of rat brain microvessel endothelial cells. Pharmacological Reports, 2011, 63:487-493

6 – Robey R, Steadman K, Polgar O, Bates S. ABCG2-Mediated Transport of Photosensitizers: Potential Impact on Photodynamic Therapy, Cancer Biology & Therapy, 2005, 4:2, 195-202, DOI: 10.4161/cbt.4.2.1440

MedKoo product information:

Chlorin E6
Description of Chlorin E6: Chlorin E6 is a natural molecule and a promising photosensitizer. Chlorin E6 usually can be made from Live chlorella and other green plants. Chlorin E6 is an attractive photodynamic therapy (PDT) drug candidate because of (1) its high absorption in the red spectral region, and (2) its low cost to make compared to other porphyrin-based PDT drugs.  Chlorin E6 exhibits advantageous photophysical properties for PDT such as having long lifetimes in their photoexcited triplet states and high molar absorption in the red region of the visible spectrum. Moreover, a 664-nm laser light can penetrate tissue deeper that the 630-nm laser light used for Photofrin. Chlorin E6 is also an important starting material for making PDT drug Talaporfin sodium (mono-L-aspartyl chlorin e6, NPe6). (last updated: 10/08/2014)
MedKoo Cat#:500410
Name:Chlorin E6
CAS#:  19660-77-6

Synonym:   CE6; ChlorinE6; chlorin e6; (2S-trans)-18-Carboxy-20-(carboxymethyl)-13-ethyl-2,3-dihydro-3,7,12,17-tetramethyl-8-vinyl-21H,23H-porphine-2-propionic acid.

IUPAC/Chemical name: 

2-[(7S,8S)-3-Carboxy-7-(2-carboxyethyl)-13-ethenyl-18-ethyl-7,8-dihydro-2,8,12,17-tetramethyl-21H,23H-porphin-5-yl]acetic acid
Chemical structure Theoretical analysis
MedKoo Cat#:  500410
Name:  Chlorin E6
CAS#:  19660-77-6
Chemical Formula: C34H36N4O6
Exact Mass: 596.26348
Molecular Weight: 596.67
Elemental Analysis: C, 68.44; H, 6.08; N, 9.39; O, 16.09

Availability and price:
Chlorin E6 (>95%) is in stock. Price reduced on 9/29/2014. The same day shipping out after order is received. Delivery time: overnight (USA/Canada); 3-5 days (worldwide). Shipping fee: from $30.00 (USA); from $45.00 (Canada); from $70.00 (international)
100mg / $90.00
200mg / $150.00
500mg / $250.00
1.0g / $395.00
2.0g / $750.00
5.0g / Ask price
10.0g / ask price
50.0g / ask price
100.0g / ask price
Bulk quantity available at low price.

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Technical data
Product data sheet
black solid powder
>95% (or refer to the Certificate of Analysis)
Certificate of Analysis:
QC data:
Safety Data Sheet (MSDS):
Shipping condition:
Shipped under ambient temperature as non-hazardous chemical.  This product is stable enough for a few weeks during ordinary shipping and time spent in Customs.
Storage condition:
Dry, dark and at 0 - 4 C for short term (days to weeks) or -20 C for long term (months to years).
Soluble in DMSO, not in water
Shelf life:
>2 years if stored properly
Drug formulation:
This drug may be formulated in DMSO
Stock solution storage:
0 - 4 C for short term (days to weeks), or -20 C for long term (months).
Note: The technical data provided above is for guidance only. For batch specific data refer to the Certificate of Analysis.
Protocols from literature
In vitro protocol:
Biol Pharm Bull. 2012;35(4):509-14.
Med Chem. 2013 Feb;9(1):112-7.
In vivo protocol:
Biol Pharm Bull. 2012;35(4):509-14.
BMC Med Imaging. 2009 Jan 8;9:1
Photochem Photobiol. 2005 Nov-Dec;81(6):1505-10.
Bioactivity reported in recent literature
Prevents ADP-Induced Platelet Aggregation
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2013;2013:569160.
Cancer detection and diagnosis
Phys Chem Chem Phys. 2013 Oct 14;15(38):15727-33.
BMC Med Imaging. 2009 Jan 8;9:1
Cancer Lett. 2007 Jan 8;245(1-2):127-33.
Photokilling of cancer cells.
J Org Chem. 2012 Dec 7;77(23):10638-47.
Biopharm Drug Dispos. 2011 Sep;32(6):319-32.
Ultrason Sonochem. 2013 Mar;20(2):667-73
Killing bacteria
Lasers Surg Med. 2011 Apr;43(4):313-23.
Biol Pharm Bull. 2012;35(4):509-14.
Pol J Microbiol. 2005;54(4):305-10.
J Antimicrob Chemother. 2002 Dec;50(6):857-64.
Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1991;618:383-93.
Nano formulation
Phys Chem Chem Phys. 2013 Oct 14;15(38):15727-33.
Biomaterials. 2013 Dec;34(36):9160-70
Lasers Surg Med. 2013 Mar;45(3):175-85.
Med Chem. 2013 Feb;9(1):112-7.
Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther. 2012 Mar;9(1):76-82.
Sonodynamic therapy
Cancer Biother Radiopharm. 2013 Nov 9. [Epub ahead of print]
Ultrasound Med Biol. 2013 Sep;39(9):1713-24.
Ultrason Sonochem. 2013 Mar;20(2):667-73.
Biopharm Drug Dispos. 2011 Sep;32(6):319-32.

Information about this agent
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is currently being used as an alternative therapeutic modality for a variety of malignant tumors. This study was performed to show an efficient preparation of second generation of photosensitizer chlorin e6 (Ce6) with high yield and purity, and to test antitumor activity of Ce6-induced PDT (Ce6-PDT) both in vitro and in vivo using a rat tumor model. Three-week-old male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were inoculated s.c. on the right flank with 5x106 RK3E-ras cells. The animals were admin-istered i.v. with Ce6 (10 mg/kg) and 24 h later, PDT was performed using a laser diode at a light dose of 100 J/cm2. Ce6-PDT generated reactive oxygen species and led to significant growth inhibition in RK3E-ras cell. In addition, Ce6-PDT induced apoptosis through the activation of caspase-3 and its downstream target, PARP cleavage. The protein level of anti-apoptotic bcl-2 was also reduced by Ce6-PDT in RK3E-ras cells. In in vivo experiments, application of Ce6-PDT led to a significant reduction of tumor size. PCNA immunostaining and TUNEL assay revealed that Ce6-PDT inhibited tumor cell proliferation and increased apoptosis. These findings suggest that the newly purified Ce6-PDT can effectively arrest tumor growth by inhibiting cell proliferation and inducing apoptosis.  (source: Oncology Reports, 2009, 22(5). 1085-1091. Doi: 10.3892/or_00000540. Efficient preparation of highly pure chlorin e6 and its photodynamic anti-cancer activity in a rat tumor model. Authors: Yeon-Hee Moon, Seong-Min Kwon, Hyo-Jun Kim, Kwan-Young Jung, Jong-Hwan Park, Soo-A Kim, Yong-Chul Kim, Sang-Gun Ahn, Jung-Hoon Yoon. Affiliations: Department of Pathology, School of Dentistry, Chosun University, Gwangju 500-759, Korea,
Methods to make Chlorin E6
Chlorin E6 is a natural product, and usually can be made from Live chlorella (Chlorella ellipsoidea, see the following pictures)
The following procedure was reported in Oncology Reports, 2009, 22(5). 1085-1091 by Korean scientists Yeon-Hee Moon et al.   Live chlorella (Chlorella ellipsoidea) 100 g (dried weight) was sequentially washed with 500 ml of water and 300 ml of 50% ethanol in water to remove polar materials and the residue was extracted twice with 500 ml of 100% ethanol to obtain chlorophyll a rich fraction (extraction yield 4.3%). Stirring the combined ethanol solution of chlorophyll a in 1 N HCl (pH 2.5) for 3 h at room temperature afforded pheophytin in the form of precipitates. The precipitate was dissolved in dichloromethane washed with distilled water, dried with anhydrous sodium sulfate, and rotary-evaporated to dryness. The residue was purified by a chromatography using neutral alumina (Aldrich, Brockmann, ~150 mesh) with a gradient elution from 30% dichloromethane in n-hexane to 100% dichloromethane. The main green band was collected and evaporated to dryness. The crystalline powder was dissolved in acetone, adjusted pH 12.0 with 1 N NaOH, and stirred for 12 h. The precipitated Ce6 was filtered, washed with acetone and dissolved in 100 ml of water, and filtered to remove insoluble impurity. After lyophilization of the filtered water solution, a fine black powder of Ce6 was obtained. The purity of Ce6 is 93-98% (yield of Ce6: 1% from dried weight of chlorella).
1: Li Q, Wang X, Wang P, Zhang K, Wang H, Feng X, Liu Q. Efficacy of Chlorin e6-Mediated Sono-Photodynamic Therapy on 4T1 Cells. Cancer Biother Radiopharm. 2013 Nov 9. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 24206161.

2: Li Z, Wang C, Cheng L, Gong H, Yin S, Gong Q, Li Y, Liu Z. PEG-functionalized iron oxide nanoclusters loaded with chlorin e6 for targeted, NIR light induced, photodynamic therapy. Biomaterials. 2013 Dec;34(36):9160-70. doi: 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2013.08.041. Epub 2013 Sep 3. PubMed PMID: 24008045.

3: Skripka A, Valanciunaite J, Dauderis G, Poderys V, Kubiliute R, Rotomskis R. Two-photon excited quantum dots as energy donors for photosensitizer chlorin e6. J Biomed Opt. 2013 Jul;18(7):078002. doi: 10.1117/1.JBO.18.7.078002. PubMed PMID: 23864017.

4: Wang H, Wang X, Wang P, Zhang K, Yang S, Liu Q. Ultrasound enhances the efficacy of chlorin E6-mediated photodynamic therapy in MDA-MB-231 cells. Ultrasound Med Biol. 2013 Sep;39(9):1713-24. doi: 10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2013.03.017. Epub 2013 Jul 3. PubMed PMID: 23830103.

5: Kimani S, Ghosh G, Ghogare A, Rudshteyn B, Bartusik D, Hasan T, Greer A. Synthesis and characterization of mono-, di-, and tri-poly(ethylene glycol) chlorin e6 conjugates for the photokilling of human ovarian cancer cells. J Org Chem. 2012 Dec 7;77(23):10638-47. doi: 10.1021/jo301889s. Epub 2012 Nov 14. PubMed PMID: 23126407; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3815657.

6: Chen B, Zheng R, Liu D, Li B, Lin J, Zhang W. The tumor affinity of chlorin e6 and its sonodynamic effects on non-small cell lung cancer. Ultrason Sonochem. 2013 Mar;20(2):667-73. doi: 10.1016/j.ultsonch.2012.09.008. Epub 2012 Oct 2. PubMed PMID: 23073382.

7: Saboktakin MR, Tabatabaie RM, Amini FS, Maharramov A, Ramazanov MA. Synthesis and in-vitro photodynamic studies of the superparamagnetic chitosan hydrogel/chlorin E6 nanocarriers. Med Chem. 2013 Feb;9(1):112-7. PubMed PMID: 22762166.

8: Li P, Zhou G, Zhu X, Li G, Yan P, Shen L, Xu Q, Hamblin MR. Photodynamic therapy with hyperbranched poly(ether-ester) chlorin(e6) nanoparticles on human tongue carcinoma CAL-27 cells. Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther. 2012 Mar;9(1):76-82. doi: 10.1016/j.pdpdt.2011.08.001. Epub 2011 Oct 4. PubMed PMID: 22369732; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3292741.

9: Shim G, Lee S, Kim YB, Kim CW, Oh YK. Enhanced tumor localization and retention of chlorin e6 in cationic nanolipoplexes potentiate the tumor ablation effects of photodynamic therapy. Nanotechnology. 2011 Sep 7;22(36):365101. doi: 10.1088/0957-4484/22/36/365101. Epub 2011 Aug 12. PubMed PMID: 21841215.

10: Shi H, Liu Q, Qin X, Wang P, Wang X. Pharmacokinetic study of a novel sonosensitizer chlorin-e6 and its sonodynamic anti-cancer activity in hepatoma-22 tumor-bearing mice. Biopharm Drug Dispos. 2011 Sep;32(6):319-32. doi: 10.1002/bdd.761. Epub 2011 Aug 3. PubMed PMID: 21815170.

11: Tu C, Zhu L, Li P, Chen Y, Su Y, Yan D, Zhu X, Zhou G. Supramolecular polymeric micelles by the host-guest interaction of star-like calix[4]arene and chlorin e6 for photodynamic therapy. Chem Commun (Camb). 2011 Jun 7;47(21):6063-5. doi: 10.1039/c0cc05662f. Epub 2011 Apr 26. PubMed PMID: 21519601.

12: Yumita N, Iwase Y, Nishi K, Ikeda T, Komatsu H, Fukai T, Onodera K, Nishi H, Takeda K, Umemura S, Okudaira K, Momose Y. Sonodynamically-induced antitumor effect of mono-l-aspartyl chlorin e6 (NPe6). Anticancer Res. 2011 Feb;31(2):501-6. PubMed PMID: 21378330.

13: Horibe S, Nagai J, Yumoto R, Tawa R, Takano M. Accumulation and photodynamic activity of chlorin e6 in cisplatin-resistant human lung cancer cells. J Pharm Sci. 2011 Jul;100(7):3010-7. doi: 10.1002/jps.22501. Epub 2011 Jan 27. PubMed PMID: 21274848.

14: Waidelich R. Comment on "Chlorin e6-polyvinylpyrrolidone mediated photodynamic therapy--A potential bladder sparing option for high risk non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer" by Lui Shiong Lee et al. [Photodiagn Photodyn Ther 2010;7:213-20]. Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther. 2010 Dec;7(4):221. doi: 10.1016/j.pdpdt.2010.09.004. Epub 2010 Oct 23. PubMed PMID: 21112543.

15: Lee LS, Thong PS, Olivo M, Chin WW, Ramaswamy B, Kho KW, Lim PL, Lau WK. Chlorin e6-polyvinylpyrrolidone mediated photodynamic therapy--A potential bladder sparing option for high risk non-muscle invasive bladder cancer. Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther. 2010 Dec;7(4):213-20. doi: 10.1016/j.pdpdt.2010.08.005. Epub 2010 Sep 29. PubMed PMID: 21112542.

16: Gao HJ, Zhang WM, Wang XH, Zheng RN. [Adriamycin enhances the sonodynamic effect of chlorin e6 against the proliferation of human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells in vitro]. Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao. 2010 Oct;30(10):2291-4. Chinese. PubMed PMID: 20965828.

17: Zheng R, Zhang W, Wang X, Gao H. [The sonodynamic effects of Chlorin e6 on the proliferation of human lung adenocarcinoma cell SPCA-1]. Zhongguo Fei Ai Za Zhi. 2010 Mar;13(3):201-5. doi: 10.3779/j.issn.1009-3419.2010.03.03. Chinese. PubMed PMID: 20673516.

18: Chin WW, Praveen T, Heng PW, Olivo M. Effect of polyvinylpyrrolidone on the interaction of chlorin e6 with plasma proteins and its subcellular localization. Eur J Pharm Biopharm. 2010 Oct;76(2):245-52. doi: 10.1016/j.ejpb.2010.06.005. Epub 2010 Jun 15. PubMed PMID: 20558287.

19: Moon YH, Kwon SM, Kim HJ, Jung KY, Park JH, Kim SA, Kim YC, Ahn SG, Yoon JH. Efficient preparation of highly pure chlorin e6 and its photodynamic anti-cancer activity in a rat tumor model. Oncol Rep. 2009 Nov;22(5):1085-91. PubMed PMID: 19787225.

20: Chin WW, Heng PW, Lim PL, Lau WK, Olivo M. Membrane transport enhancement of chlorin e6-polyvinylpyrrolidone and its photodynamic efficacy on the chick chorioallantoic model. J Biophotonics. 2008 Oct;1(5):395-407. doi: 10.1002/jbio.200810005. PubMed PMID: 19343663.